Validating national curriculum indicators

Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

- 7 Indicators of Curriculum The curriculum interacts with teachers and students in complex and important ways.

As states become more active in school reform and assessment, state guidelines can be expected to play an impor- tant role in an increasing number of states.

Regarding the second aspect of the intended curriculum, there is much research evidence that the content of textbooks importantly influences the content presented to the student (Goldstein, 1978; Stake and Eas Tey, 1978; 122 INDICATORS OF SCIENCE AND MATNEMA TICS EDUCATION Goodiad, 1984~.

Teachers or students can ignore a textbook, correct its errors, fad] to carry out its inappropriate methods and in so doing, create a learning experience that is better or worse, or simply differ- ent, from the one envisioned in the formal curriculum. By providing materials, encouragement, points of view, 119 120 INDICATORS OF SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS EDUCATION evaluations, and other pressures for certain approaches to teaching and learning, as well as discouragement and sanctions for others, curricula shape behavior.

By portraying science or mathematics as it is actually practiced, or by substituting a dogmatic, rigid version, curricula signal to teachers and students how they are expected to behave if they continue their work in science and mathematics.

Therefore, an indicator of the content of textbooks needs to be part of any monitoring system for science and mathemat- ics education.

As for the content of examinations, it also is believer] to influence classroom instruction to a considerable degree (Resnick and Resnick, 1985; Romberg, 1986~; hence, test content needs to be monitored an well.

Another question regarding the meaning of the term curriculum concerns the grade-level span over which curricula are defined: Is it a school term, a grade in school, or a longer period of time, such as all the elementary grades?

Therefore, the term curriculum as used in this chapter (and generally throughout the report) refers primarily to the subject matter, the content of the curriculum.

In mathematics and science, this includes theories, facts, algorithms, concepts, methods of inquiry, and procedural knowledge.

In the committee's view, it is important to have indicators of all three of these forms of the curriculum, since they would provide substantially different information and might be used to answer different policy questions.

The intended curriculum itself takes on many different expres- sions.

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