King self consolidating concrete
In reality, the dumped density is only about 80 percent of the maximum density.The support for a buried pipe depends on the embedment soil stiffness.That future should be protected by proper installation.NOTES: Raining cohesionless soils (pluviation) in a laboratory testing is sometimes used to create high densities for research projects.Increasing the density of gravels from 85 percent of their maximum density to 95 percent can easily double the stiffness.Recent large scale compression tests on crushed rock and gravel have demonstrated that the stiffness (e.g.The dumped in-place density will be close to the minimum density laboratory value since the soil is placed loosely in both cases.Several sources have compiled data on the laboratory minimum density of a soil and the laboratory maximum density of the same soil.
Claims of “self-compacting” can to a laboratory maximum density.
However, there are numerous claims in Internet discussion boards by some that gravels are “self-compacting,” but geotechnical engineer contributors generally disagree.
The amount of soil support for buried pipe is directly related to the stiffness of the soil.
Other published comparisons of stiffness (or strength) show increases up to 600% when cohesionless soils, such as gravels, are compacted to high densities (Howard when the gravel density goes from uncompacted to 95 percent compaction.
In effect, this doubles the allowable backfill height over the pipe (ACPA 2013).