Approaches to accommodating changes in capacity using technology

In this chapter, the commit- tee looks in particular to various industrial sectors for lessons on systems strategies that can be applied to health care.

Lean and Six Sigma Lean is a value-creation and waste-reduction philosophy that was initially developed within the context of an automobile manufacturing system—the Toyota Production System—but that has now spread widely to service industries throughout the world.According to Lean philosophy, value is defined from the customer’s orientation, meaning that valuable products and services are those that contribute to a customer’s experience and needs and that can be provided to the customer at the right time and for the right price, all as defined by the customer (Womack et al., 2005).Correspondingly, waste is anything that does not add customer-defined BOX 3-1 Systems Strategies Deming Wheel or Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) is a systematic series of steps for continuous improvement of a product or process.In non-manufacturing applications, it has been used to identify bottlenecks in a system and reduce delays, including wait times.Theory of constraints is a management paradigm used in complex systems to identify the most important limiting factors (constraints) in order to improve the performance of the system.

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